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List of English words of persian origin
English words of Persian origin
As fellow Indo-European languages, English and Persian have many words which share a common Proto-Indo-European origin, and many of these cognate words often have similar forms. However, this article will be concerned with loanwords, that is, words in English that derive from Persian, either directly, or more often, via one or more intermediary languages.
Many words of Persian origin have made their way into the English language through different, often circuitous, routes. Some of them, like "paradise" date to the cultural contacts between the Persians and Greeks in the Hellenistic culture of Antiquity, and through Greek and then Latin found their way to English. Or Mihrab from the time of Persian conflicts with Rome. Persian as the second important language of Islam has influenced many languages in the Muslim world, and its words have found their way beyond the Muslim world.
Persia remained largely impenetrable to English-speaking travellers, well into the 19th century. This may explain why not quite as many Persian words as one may imagine have made their way in English. Persia was protected from Europe by overland trade routes that passed through territory inhospitable to foreigners, while trade at Persian ports in the Persian Gulf was in the hands of locals. In contrast, intrepid English traders operated in Mediterranean seaports of the Levant from the 1570s, and some vocabulary describing features of Ottoman culture found their way into the English language. Thus many in the following list of English borrowings, though they were originally from Persian, arrived in English through Turkish mediaries. Compare List of English words of Etruscan origin for a similar situation.
Other words of Persian origin found their way into European languages - and eventually reached English at second-handвЂ” through the Moorish-Christian cultural interface in the Iberian peninsula during the Middle Ages thus being transmitted through Arabic or, much later, through Hindi during the British Raj.
- from Persian Ahriman.
- Ahura Mazda
- from Old. Persian (Zoroastrian god)
- Angra Mainyu
- older version of Ahriman
- from Persian Arman.
- evil spirit, prince of demons, from L. Asmodaeus, from Gk. Asmodaios, from Talmudic Heb. Ashmeday, from Avestan (Old-Iranian) Aesh-ma-dГ¦va, lit. "Aeshma the deceitful." Aeshma is the Zoroastrian daeva of wrath. This trait association was also passed on.
- from Ariya
- from Persian ??????? baadinjaan itself maybe originally from Sanskrit.
- azure (color)
- from Medieval Latin azuraa, from Persian Ajaward
- from Pers. papush, from pa "foot" + posh "covering."
- from Pers. baakhtar "the west."
- from Pers. bakhshish, lit. "gift," from verb bakhshidan "to give."
- Ban (title)
- "governor of Croatia," from Serbo-Croat. ban "lord, master, ruler," from Pers. ban "prince, lord, chief, governor,"
- Pers. (khaane "house").
- from Persian baazaar (="market"), from Middle-Persian bahaa-zaar ("The Place of Prices").
- from paad-zahr
- from pambak "cotton".
- from burah
- Perhaps ultimately from Pers. birinj "an alloy of copper (mainly) and ..."
- from bulbul (=type of migratory songbird native to Kenya)
- from Pers. buz "goat" + kashi "drawing."
- from Pers. kharabuz, Kharbuzeh
- from Pers. chumahan "agate."
- probably from Pers. qarabah "a large flagon."
- from kaarawaan =("to go")
- from Persian Jasper
- probably ult. from Pers. kazhagand "padded coat," from kazh "raw silk" + agana "stuffed."
- from Khaag-aavar ("bringer of eggs")
- from chaador "tent"
- check (n.) from O.Fr. eschequier "a check at chess," from eschec, from V.L. *scaccus, from Pers. shah "king," the principal piece in a chess game (see shah). When the king is in check a player's choices are limited. Meaning widened from chess to general sense of "adverse event, sudden stoppage" and by c.1700 to "a token used to check against loss or theft" (surviving in hat check) and "a check against forgery or alteration," which gave the modern financial use of "bank check, money draft" (first recorded 1798), probably influenced by exchequeur. Check-up "careful examination" is 1921, Amer.Eng., on notion of a checklist of things to be examined.
- from Middle French eschec mat, from Persian shaah maat (="the King cannot escape")
- from Russian Shach, from Persian shah ("the King"), an abbreviation of Shaah-maat (Checkmate).
- probably from Pers. zanjifrah
- from Kerman
- from Hindi kamarband, from Persian, from kamar (="waist") + band (="band")
- from Persian Kurosh, diminutive: Cy
- Darya -e- noor
- See of light
- from Fr., lit. "half-cup," from demi- + tasse, an O.Fr. borrowing from Arabic tassah, from Pers. tasht "cup, saucer".
- from Darvish
- via Turkish divan but originally from Persian devaan (="place of assembly", "roster"), from Old Persian dipi (="writing, document") + vahanam (="house")
- from Persian setareh, its diminutives are: Ess, Essie, Tess, Tessie.
- O.E. Eufrate, from Gk., from Avestan (Old-Iranian) huperethuua "good to cross over," from hu- "good" + peretu- "ford."
- From Pers Pari (Demons)
- the local name for Persian in Persian.
- from Pers. Farangi: from the word French: a person from France: the first foreigners that significantly influenced the government under the Ghajar dynasty in Iran.
- from Persian farmaan ("decree", "order").
- from Persian khalanjan, a plant.
- from Persian Gurjistaan.
- possibly ult. from Medieval Gk. angourion "a kind of cucumber," said to be from Pers. angarah
- from Pers. gaur, variant of gabr "fire-worshipper,"
- from ancient Greek kithara, perhaps from Persian sitaar "Three snares".
- from Pers. Hindu "Indian"
- from Persian Hind.
- from Persian shaghaal, Any of several dog like mammals of the genus Canis of Africa and southern Asia that are mainly foragers feeding on plants, small animals, and occasionally carrion.
- from yasmin, the name of a climbing plant with fragrant flowers. Variant Jasmin.
- Jasper (boy's name)
- from Persian meaning "treasure master".
- Jasper (stone)
- from Persian Yashp
- from Pers. zayzafun meaning "soft candy with date-like flavor"
- from gulab (rose-water).
- possibly from Persian kabaab
- from Persian khaftaan.
- Uses Persian suffix -stan
- from khaki (="made from soil", "dusty" or "of the colour of soil"), from khak (= "soil"),
- from Pers. khidiv "prince," derivative of khuda "master, prince," from Old-Persian khvadata- "lord,"
- from kushk (="palace, portico, pavilion") or Middle Persian gushak "corner"
- from Pers. kuh "mountain"."
- With Persian suffix -stan
- through Ar. lakk, from Pers. lak from Prakrit lakkhaa
- possibly from Persian limon, also possibly from Urdu, Arabic, and Turkish
- from Pers. lilak, variant of nilak "bluish," from nil "indigo"
- from magus from Old Persian magush "mighty one"
- from Old Persian magush "mighty one"
- from magus from Old Persian magush "mighty one", Priest of Zoroastrianism
- from O. Pers. word for "man eater," cf. martiya- "man" + root of khvar- "to eat."
- from Persian Mihr (the God Mithra)
- from the name of the Persian God Mithra.
- from Persian Mithra
- from mughul (="Mongolian")
- through Arabic masjid Originally taken from Middle-Persian mazgat (House of worship)
- from Pers. mumiya "asphalt," from mum "wax."
- ultimately from Middle Persian musk, from Sanskrit muska (="testicle") from diminutive of mus (="mouse")
- from Pers. musulman (adj.), from Arabic muslim (q.v.) + Persian adj. suffix -an.
- must (n)
- via Urdu mast "intoxicated, in rut," from Pers. mast, lit. "intoxicated"
- via L., from Gk. naphtha "bitumen," perhaps from Pers. naft "oil", "pitch,"
- may be from Persian nargis (may also be a Pelasgian word)
- from Milanese narans, from Arabic naaranj, from Persian naarang, from Sanskrit naaranga, from some Dravidian language, possibly Tamil or Malayalam
- via Portuguese pagode, from a corruption of Pers. butkada, from but "idol" + kada "dwelling."
- from Hindi paajaama, from Persian paay jaamah, from pAy (="leg") + jAma (="garment")
- from Pahlavi.
- from Greek paradeisos (=enclosed park"), from Old Persian pairidaeza (="enclosure, park"), from pairi (="around") + diz (="mold, form")
- from Old-Persian parasang
- from Paarsi
- from Paadeshaah
- from Pashmineh, made from pashm; pashm (= "wool")
- a corruption of the Latin word "Persicum." Peaches are called in Latin malum Persicum (Persian apple) prunum persicum (Persian plum), or simply persicum (pl. persici). This should not be confused with the more modern Linnaean classification Prunus persica, a neologism describing the peach tree itself (from the Latin prunus, -i which signifies plum tree).
- from pari
- from Paarsa+ Greek polis.
- from Paars
- from pilav (modern Persian speakers say pillaw or polo)
- from Latin pistacium, from Persian pistah
- from O.Fr. papegai (12c.), from Sp. papagayo, from Ar. babagha', from Pers. babgha "parrot,"
- via Hindi Panjab, from Pers. panj "five" + ab "water."
- possible from Persian "Res/Ras +idan"
- from Persian rukh (name of a legendary bird)
- from Middle English rok, from Middle French roc, from Arabic rukhkh, from Persian rukh (=chess piece)
- from Latin rosa, probably from ancient Greek rhodon, possibly ult. from Pers. *varda-. Zie
- from Persian: Roshanak, meaning "little star" its variants in English are meaning "dawn." Variants include, Roxane and Roxanne. Diminutives are Roxie and Roxy.Rokh-sГЎna meaning "beautiful"
- from Persian Spand
- from Persian Shatrap and Shahrab.
- from Pers. saqirlat "a type of red cloth"
- from Pers. shimshir (Shamshir)
- from Hindi sirsakar, E. Indian corruption of Pers. shir o shakkar "striped cloth," lit. "milk and sugar".
- from Persian Sipahi via Urdu
- from saraay "inn"
- from the Persian fairy tale The Three Princes of Serendip, from Persian Sarandip (="Sri Lanka"),
- from shaah, from Old Persian xshaaybiya (="king"), from an Old Persian verb meaning "to rule"
- from shamshir
- from shaal
- from Jerez in Spain, from Pers Shiraz, from the time of Rustamid empire in Spain
- from simurgh
- from Persian Sipahi via Turkish
- via Hindi sitar, from Pers. sitar "three-stringed," from si "three" (O.Pers. thri-) + tar "string"
- from Persian Savaar.
- from French espinache, from Arabic isfaanaakh, from Persian from isfaanaaj, ispaanaak, or aspanaakh
- from -istaan "place" or "where one stands"
- Possibly from Persian Shekar
- possibly from Persian Sumak.
- probably from Middle Pers. tambur "lute"
- from Pers. taftah "silk or linen cloth,"
- With Persian suffix -stan
- Taj Mahal
- from Pers., lit. "the best of buildings;" or "the Crown's Place".
- from Pers. talk "talc."
- from Middle French tambour (="drum"), possibly from Middle Pers. tambЕ«r "lute"
- from Pers. tannur "oven, portable furnace,"
- from taafteh
- from M.L. Tartarus, from Pers. Tatar
- via Greek tigris from an Iranian source
- from O. Pers. taq "veil, shawl."
- from French tulipe, from Turkish tГјlbend, from Persian dulband
- from Persian turaan
- via Turkish tulbend, from Persian dulband Band = To close, To tie
- With Persian suffix -stan
- from M.L. Turcomannus, from Pers. Turkman, lit. "Turk-like," from Turk + Persian suffix -man "like."
- from Persian Tufaan or Greek Typhon; also affected by Cantonese taai-fung
- With Persian suffix -stan
- from persian Vizier "minister" from Middle-Persian Vichir.
- Gk. form of O. Pers. Kshayarshan-, lit. "male (i.e. 'hero') among kings," from Kshaya- "king" (cf. shah) + arshan "male, man."
- Zarathushtra or Zarathustra
- the Persian prophet
- feminine given name from Persian Zan (woman).
- from Persian Zarathushtra
|Категория: Персидский язык | Добавил: persian-farsi (22-Дек-05)